Cosmic rays may not come from supernovas.
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2012 May 2
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Cosmic rays mystery deepens at South Pole. The search did not find a single neutrino, a result that challenges the idea that cosmic rays originate from gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Read more:
My last entry was 2012 Apr 28 – Astrophysics: Where does the cosmic radiation come from? and today I read more about the subject because it reminds me of Bertha Dudde’s description of such cosmic radiation. So here come some excerpts of what I read today and some comments to the excerpts.
So here first the excerpts:
A team of researchers with the IceCube collaboration have failed to come up with evidence to prove that neutrinos come from, or are caused by, gamma ray bursts, (cosmic explosions) after a year of study.
Neutrinos are neutral particles that travel through space and pass through any object (such as the Earth) in their path. They are able to do so because they have an avoidance property which for the most part keeps them from running into the atoms that make up matter.
The IceCube station was built near the South Pole specifically to capture evidence of the existence of high intensity neutrinos after they’ve passed through the Earth. Many scientists have wondered if they are the result of gamma ray bursts, as some theories predict, but have until now, been unable to test those theories. The IceCube was built to house 5,160 sensitive photon detectors that are able to capture the minute traces of blue light that appear when a neutrino does actually crash head-on into an atom (a very rare occurrence) spraying surrounding ice or water with atomic particles. The idea has been that if such a station were to be built that could capture enough of these collisions before, during and after a gamma ray burst, then it would be possible to see if there was a spike, which would lend credence to the theory that the neutrinos do in fact come from such bursts.
Unfortunately, at least so far, things have not worked out that way. During the period of April 5, 2008, through May 20, 2009, nearly 117 gamma ray bursts were detected, but not once did the researchers see any sort of spike.
The Universe contains much better particle accelerators than anything we humans can contrive. While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is capable of sending individual protons to energies of 7 trillion electron volts (7 TeV, or 7×1012 eV), cosmic ray protons can exceed 1018 eV—a million times more energetic. Achieving this acceleration requires a highly energetic source. The leading candidates are gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which are exceedingly bright astronomical events, often associated with supernovae. According to a commonly accepted model of GRB explosions, the proton acceleration should be accompanied by a flood of neutrinos—low-mass neutral particles.
That model is apparently in trouble. An analysis of high-energy neutrinos observed by the IceCube experiment at the South Pole has found too few neutrinos relative to what GRB models say we should see. By comparing the incidences of GRBs from satellite observations to the flux of neutrinos at the IceCube neutrino observatory, researchers were able to set an upper limit on the total number of neutrinos at the energies associated with GRBs. They determined that no current GRB model is able to match the observed flux, meaning either that GRBs are not the primary source of high-energy cosmic rays, or that the model for GRB neutrino production is incorrect.
When a neutrino passes through the detector, it has a small probability of striking the nucleus of an atom in the ice. This creates a particle called a muon (a heavier cousin to the electron), which in turn reveals its presence by a blue flash of light known as Cerenkov (pronounced chair-AIN-koff) radiation.
The IceCube detectors pick up this Cerenkov radiation. By tracing when and where it appears in the detectors, the researchers can determine the direction and energy of the neutrinos passing through. IceCube is sensitive to extremely high-energy events, and can determine the point of origin of a neutrino to about 0.6°, an angle slightly larger than the full Moon. While this may seem a bit lacking in accuracy, it's possible to combine this data with GRB detectors and other observations to determine if the neutrinos come from the same events, or if they must originate from other sources.
The standard "fireball" model for GRB explosions involves producing high-energy protons and neutrinos along with the gamma rays. This could account for the near-light-speed protons that are a major component of the cosmic rays that bombard our planet. However, neutrino observations at these high energies were not possible before IceCube, leaving that part of the model untested.
The implications of this result are striking. If the fireball model is correct in its predictions for neutrino production, then there must be some unknown source for very high energy cosmic rays.
Cosmic rays - high energy particles that bombard the Earth from beyond our solar system - were discovered 100 years ago. However, their origin remains one of the most enduring mysteries in physics.
A search for neutrinos emitted from 300 gamma ray bursts, unexpectedly found none!
The unexpected absence of neutrinos from GRBs has forced a re-evaluation of the theory for production of cosmic rays and neutrinos in a GRB fireball and possibly the theory that high energy cosmic rays are generated in fireballs.
Cosmic rays are electrically charged particles, such as protons, that strike Earth from all directions, with energies up to one hundred million times higher than those created in man-made accelerators. The intense conditions needed to generate such energetic particles have focused physicists' interest on two potential sources: the massive black holes at the centers of active galaxies, and the exploding fireballs observed by astronomers as gamma ray bursts (GRBs).
Neutrinos are of a ghostly nature; they can easily travel through people, walls, or the planet Earth.
GRBs are seen about once per day, and are so bright that they can be seen from half way across the visible Universe. The explosions usually last only a few seconds, and during this brief time they can outshine everything else in the universe.
Neutrinos are tiny, neutral particles that are extremely reluctant to interact with other types of matter. They’re extremely difficult to detect — a neutrino produced in the center of the sun would have to travel through several light-years’ worth of lead before having a 50 percent chance of interacting with a lead atom.
But every so often, a neutrino will smash into an atomic core, and send out a spray of nuclear particles.
In the new study, the IceCube team compared data from April 5, 2008, through May 20, 2009, when the detector was only half complete, to 117 gamma-ray bursts detected in the Northern Hemisphere during that time. (The team had to ignore Southern Hemisphere bursts, as particles that come from the atmosphere can look a lot like neutrinos. By using Earth as a shield and only counting particles that pass through the entire planet, researchers can be sure they’re really neutrinos.)
Nothing happened. Following each of the gamma-ray bursts, it took more than half an hour for any neutrinos to arrive.
Cosmic rays aren’t actually rays. They’re fast-moving particles that carry an extraordinary amount of energy and continuously bombard the Earth from every direction.
Cosmic rays are electrically charged particles, such as protons, that strike Earth from all directions with energies up to 100 million times higher than those created in man-made accelerators.
“Although we have not discovered where cosmic rays come from, we have taken a major step toward ruling out one of the leading predictions.”
It’s been the defining question of high-energy astrophysics for the past century: where do cosmic rays come from?
So these were the excerpts and now a few comments:
I will repeat here first one quote and that is: “They’re extremely difficult to detect — a neutrino produced in the centre of the sun would have to travel through several light-years’ worth of lead before having a 50 per cent chance of interacting with a lead atom.”
So the whole scientific concept of neutrinos seems to be that they are produced in the centre of stars, for example our sun. And that is the concept of the energy of the sun coming from its centre. Now on this website we have several times pointed out that this concept does not agree with the information known about the sun, that the sun’s outer atmosphere is so much hotter than the sun’s visible surface and that to explain the mechanism of this energy supply is one of the classic problems of astrophysics and that spiritual writings tell us that the heat coming from the sun does not originate in the interior of sun.
Here some webpages on this website that dealt with this:
2010 Sep 06 – Is the Sun really as science fools us?
2010 Sep 25 – The heat of the sun
2010 Dec 06 – Life exists in extreme heat, cold, acidic environments and airless, underground pockets
2011 Oct 02 – Neutrinos and science.
So one of the basic assumptions of astrophysics is that the energy of the sun comes out its interior and that this is also the case with all other stars.
And now this concept seems to become shaky.
Here now a direct link to one of such prophecies:
B.D. NR. 6620 – Sunlight – 13. August 1956.
The spiritual writings say that this radiation is the original, and that out of this radiation everything is created and supplied with energy. And science thinks then, at least still until now, that this radiation comes from existing material things, like the interior of the sun, where allegedly nuclear processes produce them.
Above we have read, “Neutrinos are of a ghostly nature; they can easily travel through people, walls, or the planet Earth” and “Neutrinos are neutral particles that travel through space and pass through any object (such as the Earth) in their path.”
And the spiritual writing says that God’s radiation is also capable to radiate through the entire earth, that there is no body which is able to stop the illuminating power.
The statements are expressing almost the same.
Therefore it is not the stars like the sun and the centres of galaxies and supernovas which produce this radiation, but it is this radiation from which everything originates.
Last year, in the year 2011, it seemed to emerge that the search for the Higgs boson is not very successful, that it cannot be found. And this year, the year 2012, is now to bring the decision whether these particles now exist or not. So this year the physicist community could be forced to start a re-thinking and the news of the last days, that the cosmic radiation does not come from where according to the physicists it should come from, is now the first occasion to again think over the basic considerations and perhaps there will then be further occasions this year which let their theories become shaky.
The experiment IceCube seems to have the same purpose as the experiment Large Hadron Collider. Both experiments were basically unsuccessful. Both did not bring that what the physicists hoped for. The real purpose of both experiments was to prove that the theories of the physicists are wrong.
Science tells us consciousness develops out of matter. The truth is that it is exactly the other way round. Matter comes into being through consciousness.
Science tells us cosmic radiation is produced in the sun and in other stars and in the centres of galaxies and in supernovas. The truth is that it is exactly the other way round. The things are produced and maintained by the cosmic radiation.
The truths of the spiritual writings have not changed for eternities. The theories of scientists keep on changing.
Why for example is there the theory of the big bang? In reality everything indicates that the material world came into being out of the spiritual world. But that goes against the religion of the materialists and of the atheists. And so the big bang came into being. So they have something what ‘proves’ that the material world came into being out of the material world – out of itself.
Let me finish with a further quote from what I read today:
The crux of the problem, really, is that other than active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, there are no known, credible sources that are abundant enough to create these high-energy cosmic rays.
This fact leads us to a startling conclusion: either the IceCube data is wrong, our understanding of gamma-ray bursts is wrong, or we have to appeal to a completely new paradigm of physics.
Just appeal to a completely new paradigm of physics
Above we read: “It’s been the defining question of high-energy astrophysics for the past century: where do cosmic rays come from?” Here we have a good example of physics going in the wrong direction, for a whole century.
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