Beams of high energy protons produced in particle accelerators are used to study elementary particles.

What is the Large Hadron Collider? - Comment on 2010 September 19

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2010 September 19
A technique in high-energy physics whereby two beams of particles are made to collide head-on. Read more:

Some of my recent entries dealt with the Large Hadron Collider and today I decided to have a closer look at what this machine is all about and so I looked up some terms:

Collider
A particle accelerator in which two beams of particles moving in opposite directions are made to collide

Collider
Particle accelerator: a particle accelerator in which two oppositely moving particle beams are made to collide. This allows the particles to use more of their energy to create new particles than when they collide with a fixed target.

Colliding-beam experiment
A technique in high-energy physics whereby two beams of particles are made to collide head-on. A greater proportion of the energy of the incident particles is available for the creation of new particles in the collision than in a fixed target experiment of similar total energy.

Hadron
An elementary particle that interacts strongly with other particles. Hadrons include baryons and mesons.

Strong interacting
An interaction between particles involving baryons and mesons completed in a time of the order of 10^-23 s. It is the strong interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in the nuclei of atoms. The underlying fundamental interaction to these processes is the strong interaction between the constituent quarks.

Strong interaction between quarks
A fundamental interaction mediated by gluons. It is the interaction for the binding together of quarks (and antiquarks) in hadrons.

Baryon
A hadron with a baryon number of + 1. Baryons are involved in strong interactions. Baryons include neutrons, protons and hyperons.

Meson
A hadron with a baryon number of 0. Mesons generally have masses intermediate between those of electrons and nucleons and can have negative, zero or positive charges. Mesons are bosons and may be created or annihilated freely. There are three groups of mesons: pi-mesons (pions), K-mesons (kaons) and eta–mesons.

Quark
A type of fundamental particle that forms the constituents of hadrons. There are currently believed to be six types of quarks (and their antiquarks). In the simple quark theory, the baryon is composed of three quarks, an antibaryon is composed of three antiquarks, and a meson is composed of a quark and an antiquark. No quark has been observed in isolation.

Neutron
Uncharged subatomic particle, mass approximately equal to that of the proton, which enters into the structure of atomic nuclei. Interacts with matter primarily by collision. Spin quantum number of neutron = + ½, rest mass = 1.008665a.m.u., charge is zero and magnetic moment -1.9125 nuclear Bohr magnetrons. Although stable in nuclei, isolated neutrons decay by beta-emission into protons, with a half-life of 11.6 minutes.

Proton
The nucleus of the hydrogen atom; of positive charge and atomic mass number of unity. With neutrons, protons form the nucleus of all atoms, the number of protons being equal to the atomic number. It is the lightest baryon, 1.007276a.m.u. and the most stable. Beams of high energy protons produced in particle accelerators are used to study elementary particles.

Hyperon
Elementary particle with masses greater than that of a neutron and less that of a deuteron and having a life-time of the order of 10^-10 s.

 

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